Sunday, July 19, 2015

What Is Governance?

                     Why Better Governance?
 The governments, public officials, managers and political actors love and run after Good Governance(GG).  To achieve it, we first need to understand, what  Governance mean. What is it all about?  The first and foremost aim of a government is to provide Good Governance to its citizens.
GG has no exact or accurate definition. United Nations (UN) defines GG as an ideal proposition which is difficult to achieve in its totality. GG is an instrument of public affairs management. Public actors and political masters try their best to achieve it. Due to lack and slippage in management, outcome is not as per GG concept.
    Now focus on governance? The concept of governance in not new. Its complexity is difficult to capture in a simple definition. There is no consensus on its meaning. Hence, it can't be defined exactly and accurately.  It provides different meanings to different people in different contexts. And its meaning depends on level of the governance, goals achieved and approach being  followed.
    Governance is a very broad concept, and operates at every level, such as household, village, municipality, nation, region or globe. Due to the inherent diversity in national traditions and public cultures, Governance has many definitions in the literature. But it is possible to categorise it into three main types of governance.
    First, political or public governance, whose authority is the State, government or public sector, relates to the process by which a society organizes its affairs and manages itself. The public sector could be defined as “activities that are undertaken with public funds, whether within or outside of core government, and whether those funds represent a direct transfer or are provided in the form of an implicit guarantee”.
    Second, economic governance, whose authority is the private sector, relates to the policies, the processes or organizational mechanisms that are necessary to produce and distribute services and goods.
    Third, social governance, whose authority is the civil society, including citizens and non-for-profit organizations, relates to a system of values and beliefs that are necessary for social behaviours to happen and for public decisions to be taken.   
    Governance should not be reduced to government, as the three aspects of governance are interdependent in a society. Indeed, social governance provides a moral foundation, while economic governance provides a material foundation, and political governance guaranties the order and the cohesion of a society.
    Therefore, governance is not just about how a government and social organizations interact, and how they relate to citizens, but it concerns the State’s ability to serve citizens and other actors, as well as the manner in which public functions are carried out, public resources are managed and public regulatory powers are exercised.  
    Besides, public governance represents more than a means of providing common good, as it can be related to the government capacity to help their citizens’ ability to achieve individual satisfaction and material prosperity. Therefore, governance could be compared to the management, supply, and delivery of political goods to citizens of a nation-state.
    Political goods and social products are various, and they include human security, rule of law, political and civil freedoms, medical and health care, schools and education, communication networks, money and banking system, fiscal and institutional context, support for civil society, or regulating the sharing of the environmental commons. The practice of governance is also ruled by community values, informal traditions, accepted practices, or unwritten codes of conduct.
    The term governance is the most favourite term for (and frequently used by) political actors, social activists, and public managers.  Governance is a gauge for metering and assessing  performance of public actors.  It acts as tool for measuring  quality of the governance in marketing  public services by public managers.
    There are some fundamental concepts and terminologies of governance. These concepts and terminologies are not static and don't apply in a uniform way in all places and cultures.    
    The term governance gained prominent attention towards the end of the twentieth century.  The donor agencies, social scientists, philanthropists and civil society  applied it to a wide range of issues, relationships and institutions in the process of managing public and private affairs.  
    Public administration popularises the word governance.   Many theorists  believe  governance  as organising concepts  that guides public managers  as administrative practices shift  from the bureaucratic  state to what is called the hollow state.
    The  World Bank(WB) and International Monetary Fund(IMF), and Western countries urged developing countries to undertake political, economic and administrative reforms  to practice GG.  
    Governance, in a generic sense, refers for running a government or entity. The  Webster's New International Dictionary  indicates governance is a synonym for government.  This implies the act or process of governing, mainly authoritative direction and control.
    The  British council, however  asserts that " Governance is a  notion more than government.  The working definition used by council is " Governance involves interaction between the formal entity and those civil society.  It refers to a process whereby elements in society wield power, authority, and influence and enact policies and decisions concerning public life and social upliftment."
    Frederickson and Smith asserts that with more emphasis on governance, " the administrative state is now less bureaucratic,  less hierarchical and less reliant on central authority to mandate actions. Accountability for conducting  the public's business is increasingly about performance rather than following a specific policy goal within the ambit of the law."
World Governance Indicators  project conceptualizes that "Governance consists of the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them."
    The United Nations Development Progamme (UNDP), in its 1997 policy paper, defined governance as " the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country' affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their obligations and mediate their difference."
    Institute on Governance (IoG)defines that "Governance determines who has power, who makes decisions, how other players make their voice heard and how account is rendered."  It further states that  mostly definitions rest on three main dimensions: authority, decision-making and accountably.     
    IOG also offers a simple definition as" the art of steering societies and organisations." Governance is about  the more strategic aspects of steering, making the larger decisions about both direction and roles. Governance is a highly contextual concept.  While working  in the field of governance, one operates in an area where one size does not fit all.
    In 1993, the WB defined governance as the method through which power is exercised in the management of a country' political, economic, and social resources for development.
    The evaluation of  governance is important for a number of reasons. First, donors and reformers take it into consideration when assessing the impact of policies and determining future development projects. Second, governance evaluations determine the investment climate. It is well established that aid flows have greater impacts on development in countries with better governance
    Governance is a qualitative aspect. Measuring and assessing it exactly is not easy.  Its measurement is inherently controversial and political exercise. In many efforts, research and international development community tried  to assess the quality of governance of countries all around the world over the last decades.
      In one notable effort among many, WB and WB Institute has created an internationally comparable measure of governance. They started a Worldwide Governance Indicators project.  The project evaluate and assess 200 countries  for six dimensions of governance. These are: voice and accountability, political stability and lack of violence,  government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, control of corruption.
    A new World Governance Index(WGI) project started. It reports aggregate and individual governance indicators for 215 economies over a period of 1996-2013 for six dimensions as in WB.  The WGI are not used to allocate resources by WB groups.
    Governance  is a term closely associates with  public.  It affects and impacts general masses everyday directly or indirectly. Public are consumer of political goods and social products. These are produced and marketed in a factory called government by political masters and public actors through different governance processes and steps.
    The different types of programmes, projects, ideas etc. implemented by the governments may broadly be categorized as social products. These products are developed for the welfare and overall development of the society and masses.
    Our three-tier government-system (national, provincial, and local) creates departments/ ministries/ sections for developing such social products. The government markets social products for no profit with a primary ambition of achieving better governance. Therefore, governance could be compared to the management, supply, and delivery of political goods and social products to citizens of a nation-state.
Better governance brings happiness. Simple  governance  makes life charmless. And bad governance makes citizens'  life miserable. Desired better governance improves the image of the nation and political masters worldwide. It  helps in enhancing the bargaining power of the country. 
This in turn assists in economic growth and  accelerates  the overall prosperity and development of the country and its citizen.  
Heera Lal (Views are personal and based on different references)

Thursday, July 2, 2015

PhD Synopsis: Social and Political marketing by ICT and Marketing concepts

Role of ICT and Marketing Concepts in Achieving Good Governance in Uttar Pradesh

Synopsis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Management from
Uttar Pradesh Technical University
Lucknow, India

Submitted By
 Heera Lal
{Roll No. 1150071}

Under the Supervision of
Prof Jabir Ali (IIM Lucknow)
Prof. D S Yadav(Dr.BR Ambedkar Engg College, Banda) 

Table of Contents

1.  Aims and Objectives of the Research (Purpose of the Study): 

The first and foremost aim of a government is to provide Good Governance (GG).GG has no exact or accurate definition. United Nations (UN) defines GG as an ideal proposition which is difficult to achieve in its totality. In realistic world, UN has prescribed eight major characteristics for GG. These are: Consensus oriented, Participatory, Follows the rule of law, Effective &Efficient, Accountable, Transparent, Responsive, and Equitable &Inclusive.
GG is an instrument of public affairs management. Public and political actors try their best to achieve it. Due to lack and slippage in management, outcome is not as per GG concept. Therefore, we need to find it out and reduce it by different tools and techniques of marketing and IT.
The very purpose of study is to know the use of ICT (Information and communication Technology) enabled services, with a focus on social media & mobile technology and marketing management concepts in achieving GG via social marketing. Social and political sectors are broadening its boundaries by using concepts and tools of Information Technology (IT or ICT) and marketing.
The present study will enable to find out how to maximize the use of ICT and marketing in deliveringGG or in other words “Government to Citizen (G2C)” services in a better way thus enabling every citizen to avail the goods of a welfare state.
In addition to above, this study, if used analytically, has enough potential to create opportunities for the government to communicate itself better. Qualitative aspects of GG which cannot be measured otherwise may be brought forward for people to judge the government, aided with the tools prescribed in this paper. It also serves the purpose of a focused and targeted branding of government on the basis of quality governance delivered.

2.  Background of the Subject: 

India has come a long way to maturity as an independent nation and had its share of ups and downs. The country has changed drastically in terms of economic prosperity and maintaining the essence of a welfare democratic state.
In the age of expanding satellite services, fast growing awareness and melting boundaries make it’s difficult for public managers, social workers and political actors to connect, engage and communicate with the public and voters to the level of their satisfaction.
To satisfy masses and voters, social and political sectors have broadened its boundaries by using concepts and tools of Information Technology (IT or ICT) and marketing. IT has affected and impacted all walks of life in the society. It has brought India on world map by exporting its services worldwide- particularly USA. Likewise innovative and investigative marketing concepts have also galvanized consumer sector of India. Keeping in view the landscape, number, and fast desired speed, social and political sector must work in tandem with IT and marketing for achieving the desired results. These two factors have contributed to the inclusive growth of the country immensely and have brought the results. However, Indians lag behind in the fusion of the above two in order to be a developed welfare state with both factors complimenting each other.
In exclusive growth, social, public and political actors have a major role to play.  Fast changing mind set of pubic where none is willing to wait has compelled these sectors to replace their traditional ways and means with modern concepts, tools and technologies.
Indian Yoga Guru Baba Ram Dev is one of the best current practicing social marketer while President Barrack Obama and PM Modi have set precedent in political marketing as well as in good governance worldwide.
Recent result trends of elections and mass movement against corruption, black money and bad governance are clear indications that public wish to get rid of these things sooner than later.  To fulfill these desires of the masses, our political, social and public players need to emulate the modern concept of social and political marketing in establishing India as a welfare and developed country the earliest possible. Without the use of these, we can’t get the name of India in the list of developed countries with the desired result of inclusive growth.
The idea proposed is to research the impact and effect of IT and marketing that can be employed as a tool and technique to foster e governance through social marketing efforts in India. It also aims at developing a strong medium which can be practiced to evolve political marketing initiative as well.

3.  Literature Review: 

Different services such as the various records of land holding can be assessed online like the Bhulekh, various certificates required by the citizen like caste, domicile, birth, death, age among others. The citizens can register online and obtain them easily. Along with these driving license, ration card can be acquired by online registration. The government is reaching out to the citizens by applying IT and marketing concepts and the citizens are availing these services.
Information Technology is recognized as a strategic tool that can enhance efficiencies in government very significantly (Margretts, 1999). E-governance offers integrated government services through a single window concept by re-engineering of government processes. E-government has been seen as the intensive use of information technologies for the provision of public services, the improvement of managerial effectiveness and promotion of democratic values and mechanisms (Gil-Garcia and Pardo, 2005).
Government at all three tiers - the centre, state and local bodies like Municipalities and Panchayati Raj Institution, are now leveraging IT for good governance (Abramson, 2003). E-governance brings governments and citizens closer together by eliminating/reducing various levels involved in providing services and information and improving the delivery and quality, while bringing transparency (Bedi& Srivastava, 2002; Evans, 2003).
In India, e-governance still seems to be in growth stage. Various experiments are being conducted by governments to implement e-government initiatives. Efforts are made to study the various issues involved in e-readiness, e-adoption and e-deliverance with the help of various case studies (Barry Fulton, 2003). Some states have been very successful in their efforts, while others are still lagging behind. The state of Uttar Pradesh is one such state which still has a long way to go as far as e-governance is concerned.

4.  Current scenario: 

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in the country accounting for 16.4 per cent of the country’s population. It is also the fourth largest state in geographical area covering 9.0 per cent of the country’s geographical area. The performance of the state on various social development indicators like medical facilities, teacher-pupil ratio in primary schools, birth rate, death rate, infant mortality rate, literacy, per capita income, electrification of villages, per capita power consumption etc. have not been very encouraging. Uttar Pradesh is often seen as a case study of development in a region of India that currently lag behind other parts of the country in terms of a number of important aspects of well-being and social progress.
Various initiatives have been under taken by the government across the departments to bring the services closer to the citizens few examples in this regards are as under:
a)     eSuvidha: in order to create and develop a bridge between the common citizen and the government departments, the Smart City Project unit (e-Suvidha) was constituted and duly registered as a government society. It is supposed to provide single window service to consumers for depositing their electricity, water, house tax, telephone and mobile bills.
b)    Lokvani rural e-service project: In this project the government has sought public-private partnership. Lokvani kiosks were being set up under private participation in rural areas, Sitapur being the first district, this service helps the citizen to avail the benefits of internet and avail the services in ITC enabled manner rather than the traditional method.
c)     Samajvadi pension yojana: Beneficiaries up to 40 laks had registered till last financial year. The automatic system and effective software are clearly handing out the benefits to the needy citizen.
d)    Treasury Computerization: one of the few government sector projects to have been certified by ISO, the treasury computerization in the state is an example of G2G and G2C interfaces. Benefiting more than nine lakh pensioners of the state
e)     Bhulekh: the land records computerization in UP started as an application especially for farmers but with concepts such as ‘Khatauni on Web’, ‘RoRAapkeDwar’ the project has benefited government, banks, NGOs and all other stakeholders. Implemented in all the 305 tehsils of the state, the project has been instrumental in bridging the digital divide to a great extent.
f)      Vahan:The state has already computerized the major activities (Driving License, Registration, Tax Collection, Permits, etc) of all RTO and ARTO offices in Uttar Pradesh.
g)     E- District: In e-district, all the above can be accessed from one portal like one stop shop.

5.  Objectives of the proposed research: 

1.     To identify good governance gaps by evaluating the ICT based e governance models for delivering efficient and effective pubic services.
2.     To find the role of modern marketing tools and techniques in implementing e governance models
3.     To find the factors influencing the adoption of e governance model.
4. To develop an effective framework for promoting good governance          with the help of technology and marketing.
5.      To find whether good governance leads to improved image of the government. 

6.  Research Problem (Gap):

The different types of programmes, projects, ideas etc. implemented by the governments may broadly be categorized as social products. These products are developed for the welfare and overall development of the society and masses. Our three-tier government-system (national, provincial, and local) creates departments/ ministries/ sections for developing such social products. The government markets social products for no profit with a primary ambition of achieving GG.
The government markets its social products by using the eight basic characteristics of GG. In general, governments are decried for bad governance. It means, while marketing social products, Government is not involving all 8 parameters as mentioned in GG concept and if involved they are ineffectively managed. Thus the Gaps in GG are cropped in. We aim to find it out in our research.
While marketing these social products, they are not propagated through the social and modern media in a professional way. And thus gaps are developed in GG.  The research aims at reducing the gap by virtue of studying the various components including the transmission, assimilation and propagation of information. The research also focuses at finding the GAP by analyzing the experiences/ perceptions of the citizens vis-a-vis the conditions laid down by UN for GG.
The study shall include how ITC enabled services like mobile governance, social media, and Marketing concepts can be clubbed and used to reduce these gaps to achieve GG. The study further aims to establish and assess correlation between good governance and its impact in improving the image of government.

7.  Impact on society: 

The idea proposed is to research the impact and effect of IT and marketing that can be employed as a tool and technique to foster social marketing efforts in India. This would help in improving the quality and quantity of our governance.  It also aims at developing a strong medium which can be practiced to evolve political marketing initiative as well and can be practiced time and again to use as an educational platform.
If the recommended findings are implemented, these can be utilized to provide the benefits of e governance to the masses in the most effective and efficient manner. It will save time and cost of the both Government and the citizens. Public will have the easy accesses to Government services as and when required (any time anywhere).

8.  Proposed- Research Methodology: 

Research methodology is an overall action plan for research. Based on logic or series of steps that connects a given set of research questions (uncertainties or gaps in our knowledge about the social world, about human behavior) to the conclusions arrived at. It encompasses the selection of research methods, the design of data gathering instruments like interview or self-administered questionnaire schedules, gaining access to the research site, sampling, research ethics and data analysis. It justifies the choices to gather meaningful, relevant, credible, trustworthy and plausible data to answer the research questions and undertake the research in an ethical way.
This study shall be conclusive in nature and Mixed Method Approach shall be adopted by using both the quantitative and the qualitative research designs together. The  research would use an exploratory research design for procuring the initial insights about the phenomenon to be investigated.

i-                  Data collection:

 The study proposes to collect data from primary and secondary sources both. An extensive review of literature will be conducted by scrutinizing the latest research that has been done in the last decade on the subject. Books, Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, Booklets and Websites etc. will be referred for collecting data from secondary sources. In Primary survey, first a pilot survey involving Focus Group discussions with the experts from academics and industry will be conducted to ascertain the conceptual framework for the proposed study. Thereon a Primary survey will be conducted with structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews.

ii-               Sampling Design

The target population for the study is the consumer using government services.  The sampling to be employed is the stratified cluster sampling with the variable-age, gender. The sample size for the study would be decided after completion of pilot survey.
In the proposed work, the research work would be emphasizing upon the extensive literature survey. The study would commence with the in-depth analysis of the existing work that has been done in the past and their results. For the purpose the synthesis of the recent studies on the aforesaid areas would be done by examining the academic articles that have been published in the period 2005-2015 using electronic database.  The findings would be presented in the Chapter 1 of the thesis. Then expert surveys would be done to procure the inputs from the various experts on the subject to strengthen the comprehension of the matter summarized as well to gain valuable insights about developing it further according to the proposed research objectives.
In addition to this, the study would conduct personally administered questionnaires on the citizens using open-ended questions to gain a better comprehension of the trend revealed by the secondary data.

iii-            Classification & tabulation of data:

The data thus collected were classified according to the categories based on demographic and regional categories, counting sheets & the summary tables will be prepared.

iv-             Statistical tools used for data analysis:

SPSS (Special Package for Social Sciences) software would be used for analyzing the data covering-
1.     Descriptive statistics
2.     Correlation Analysis
3.     ANOVA Analysis
4.     Regression Analysis     

9.  PERT of Ph.D. Research Work:

S. No.
Literature Review
August 2015-January 2016
Focussed Group Discussion & Expert Surveys
November 2015-January 2016
Identification of research objectives and drafting of Synopsis & Dissertation
December 2015-January 2016
Presentation of the first research paper
January 2016
Refining Research Proposal
January 2016-February 2016
Working for research paper II
February 2016-December 2016
Documentation and publication of research papers in reputed international journals
February 2017-December 2017
First Draft of Ph.D. Report Writing
January 2018-March 2018
Second and Final draft of Ph. D. Report Writing
April 2018 –May 2018
Final Report Compilation & Presentation
June 2018-July 2018

10.              References: 

1.     Heera Lal (2010),“How to use social media in Indian election”,The south Asian time, pp 24-25
2.     Henneberg, “Political marketing theory: Hendiadyoin or Oxymoron”, Working Paper, School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
3.     Kotler, Levy (1969), “Broadening the concept of Marketing”, AMA, Journal of Marketing. Vol. 33, No1  pp10-15
4.     Vivek Bajpai, Dr. Sanjay Pandey, Mrs Shweta Vishwas (2012), “Social Media Marketing: Strategies & Its Impact”. Vol.1
5.     ICT and service, Service Innovation  “ Transforming markets with ICT enabled service innovations – A dynamic capability perspective”
6.     Zikmund, Babin, Carr, Adhikari, Griffin Cengage Learning Business Research Methods: A South Asian Perspective