Friday, February 26, 2010

Role of International organizations in shaping the Policies- Oxfam America

To: Board of Directors, Oxfam America

Re: Proposal on OA Organizational Strategy ,Impacting International Policy and Institutional


From: Ms. Jo Marie Griesgraber

Prepared by: Clorise Harvey, Linda Jirouskova, Heera Lal, Rob Myers, Hamza Safouane, Sheela Thomas

I. Executive Summary

To maximize the impact of Oxfam America (OA) I would like to present the following strategic advancements designed to increase the organizations impact on global poverty. By expanding our network and building coalitions of civil society groups we can increase our lobby in Washington, New York, and everywhere international development policies are made. I recommend we focus this new advocacy division first on the structural inequalities of international finical institutions.

Oxfam’s recent initiatives to engage international financial institutions have permanently altered the landscape of many international reform efforts. The vernacular of IFIs has shifted towards a rhetoric that is inclusive of poverty development. Our challenge today is to capture this momentum and make an even larger impact through advocacy and grant making. At the core of my recommendation lies increased capacity to make grants to highly indebted poor counties. Also, structural reform is needed within international lending practices. By increasing our advocacy division we can directly impact a large scope of poverty related policy in Washington and elsewhere. The new capacity of Oxfam's advocacy program will serve to generate new sustainable funding that will be used to impact larger macroeconomic issues through direct policy reform (see appendix 1).

Recent Success in Advocacy

Our recent advocacy work relating to debt forgiveness is one option that we believe can positively impact impoverished nations, however debt reform itself is not a sustainable solution. Debt forgiveness often has the unintended impact of filling corrupt coffers leaving only marginal impact on the poor. We need to do more and our recent efforts have demonstrated the potential for achieving great results through our advocacy work.


The World Bank and International Monetary Fund acknowledged in their 1996 and 1999 debt relief programs that many developing nations simply had no chance of repayment. Oxfam’s role in development of education and advocacy along with a strategic retooling to enhance current programmatic goals are rooted in best practices in loan making and are supported by debt holding nations. We can use our relationships in the media to bring our advocacy message to the world while creating new funding streams that will support public awareness and engender additional action.


Expansion of our advocacy programs requires additional funding. Instead of cutting our potent existing programs, we are prepared to re-brand our advocacy work as a new line of business. The fund development arm of our new advocacy program will create the opportunity to raise new funds by tapping into new market that had previously evaded our fund development programs.

II. Overview of Debt Advocacy

Oxfam International (OI) is a confederation of eleven organizations that work as partners to develop lasting strategies to combat poverty and injustice. Oxfam America (OA) also provides immediate assistance to people affected by natural disasters or conflicts. Finally, Oxfam works with advocacy groups to raise public awareness on the causes of poverty and to press decision-makers to adopt poverty reduction policies.

Oxfam America began advocacy work on debt reduction when it opened its Washington office, Oxfam America (OA), in January 1995. OA managed to build relationships with policy-makers within the Washington-based IFIs as well as U.S. institutions such as the U.S. Treasury, the Congress, and the Administration to influence them on implementing debt relief.

Prior to OA's advocacy, the issue of debt relief first appeared in 1967 at the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Yet, the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative, designed to help the most heavily indebted countries escape from unsustainable debt, was initiated in 1996 by the IMF and World Bank only after heavy lobbying by numerous NGOs. Oxfam America, which participated in the debt relief advocacy as a part of a coalition of NGOs called Jubilee 2000, welcomed the HIPC Initiative as a step forward but criticized it on numerous accounts. In its critique OA pointed out what it considers a too restrictive definition of debt sustainability, an inconsistency between the time frame of the program and the urgency of the HIPC's needs, the lack of emphasis on debt relief as a means to reduce poverty, and finally the lack of civil society involvement. There were, however, even harsher critics of the HIPC Initiative such as 50 Years is Enough or Witness for Peace. Less moderate NGOs rejected the initiative and blamed OA for softening up its position. The height of the debt relief campaign was reached in 1998 during the G7 meeting in Birmingham when Jubilee 2000 mobilized over 50,000 supporters.

The success of Jubilee 2000 and the proximity of OA to the U.S. Congress, Treasury, and main IFIs increased OA's credibility among policy makers as a valuable debt relief advocacy organization. OA's advocacy power is also strengthened by our credible field-based research supported by our office in Boston. By backing up its advocacy activities with its Boston policy research team, OA is able to concentrate on the U.S. Congress, Treasury, and the Administration, whereas OI focuses on the IFIs.

III. Presenting the Problem

While the relative success of Oxfam's advocacy secured incremental changes at the IFIs' and enhanced the progress towards debt relief, it didn’t achieve its desired goal of sustainable poverty reduction in poor countries. Having contributed substantially to bring the issue of debt relief and poverty to international attention, Oxfam must dedicate additional resources to influence actors such as the U.S. Congress, G7, and IFIs to reevaluate the actual issues faced by the poor nations. Oxfam also needs to ensure greater involvement and participation of the people in the affected countries in any effort related to debt reduction. Having gone this far, OA cannot go back to being an organization that is involved only in the reduction of poverty through direct funding and program development. The key challenge is to maintain the momentum of the debt relief campaign and translate these efforts into a sustainable reduction of poverty and injustice in poor countries. While Oxfam America needs to continue focus on grant-making as its core means of delivering on its mission, I am recommending to The Board of Directors a new program of action with past success in advocacy as a backdrop to our future endeavors.

IV. Policy Options

Based on Oxfam’s central mission to fight poverty and related injustice around the world, we face several options to maintain forward momentum for the initiative to sustain progress with the development reform agenda crafted by the World Bank and IMF. Targeting reforms that prioritize poverty reduction, in addition to debt relief, the proposed policy options follow the lines of our primary programmatic activities: grant making, public awareness, and advocacy, which are outlined below according to each programmatic arm.


As the first pillar of Oxfam’s programmatic activity, grant making can be a tool to advance the organization’s new agenda of prioritizing poverty reduction while strengthening the strategic alliances required with non-profits and international NGO's to facilitate political pressure on elected officials to make poverty reduction in HIPCs a policy priority

Community-Based Resource Management

1. Create poverty-reduction requirements for all grant recipients which require demonstration that funds will used to address approved target areas.

2. Utilize grants to supplement IFI funding as earmarked spending which is allocated to associated infrastructural demands that enable poverty-reduction.

These two policies allow HIPCs to receive funds that directly and indirectly address poverty reduction through providing funding for associated infrastructural changes, such as retraining of public officials, the development of anti-corruption enforcement mechanisms, or education of targeted populations in keeping with the requirements of poverty reduction. These "supplemental" funds are earmarks to address the indirect, or associated, requirements of poverty reduction, which ensure that HIPCs are capable of enacting the programs that have been approved.

Participation Equity

1. Create funding requirements that stipulate education, labor market training, natural resource cultivation, and/or environmental protections for the nation's most impoverished residents as mandates for all grant recipients.

This approach will increase our political capital among other non-profits and international NGOs, and increase the reach of our alliance into associated organizations, such as those that focus on environmental protection, as we continue to build our broad base of support for mobilizing public education and public action campaigns

2. Create a funding requirement the all grant recipients must develop and enact developing participatory processes that build vehicles for the most impoverished to provide direct feedback to their government, and for national officials to provide feedback to the World Bank and IMF regarding funding priorities and program efficacy.

This supports our goal of participatory equity, and creates structures enabling this to occur through prioritizing the needs of the most impoverished.

Development Finance

1. Create a business incubation fund to promote innovation and entrepreneurial activity that promotes sustainable economic growth in the HIPC's economy.

Executing this component will require an increase in fund development, as no component of the budget is currently allocated to this enterprise. However, the generation of entrepreneurial activity is an iterative process that is self-replicating, and will continue to produce results over time through direct and indirect knowledge transfers. Investments in this arena will create long-lasting dividends in the area of economic growth; however, it will require shouldering many failures that will be perceived as "wasted" investments in order to generate "successes".

Public Education

Increasing public awareness of the conditions associated with HIPCs will bring a means to capitalize upon the strengths of our non-profit and NGO partners, and raise awareness among Americans to create democratic pressure on public officials, as well as the World Bank and IMF, to address the core issue of poverty reduction in development policies and practices.

1. Partner with affiliated non-profits and NGOs to execute a public education campaign, both through traditional media outlets and public actions.

This will increase public awareness directed toward incentivizing legislators to take bilateral debt relief out of gridlock, through increased media coverage and political actions similar to those that were previously credited with facilitating reforms. In addition to raising debt relief as a policy priority among legislators, this policy will simultaneously create pressure for the World Bank and IMF to maintain with their commitments to prioritize poverty reduction. Finally, this action gives direction to our more progressive contingent among our partner organizations, as they are invited to direct their creative energies toward forwarding institutional and systemic change in the development policy arena, disincentivizing more radical and potentially disruptive processes which halter progress. As progressives will be involved in the formulation and execution of these collective goals, they will be less likely to engage in activities which jeopardize the potential of progress, even if that progress falls short of realizing their full objective.


Utilizing our lobbying arm, as well as our informal allies within Congress and the World Bank, OA will assert political pressure to prioritize our poverty reduction agenda within the development policy formulation and execution process. These efforts will be strengthened by the public education campaigns (media attention and public actions) outlined above, which create political will, and incentivize public officials to take action on behalf of their respective constituencies. Establishing poverty reduction as a policy priority for our advocacy branch will entail two components:

1. Meeting with our legislative allies in Congress, and our contacts within the Department of Treasury to determine what will be required to elicit US participation and backing of these poverty reduction development policies.

The specific outcomes that we are targeting include:

Getting a bill on the House floor

Getting appropriation for the bilateral debt relief that has been approved

Garnering support to present a unified front of support for poverty reduction as a development policy priority between Congress, Treasury, World Bank, and IMF, so that other nations follow our lead and understand that the shift in priorities is substantive and meaningful

2. Coordinate efforts with Oxfam International to invite other Oxfam affiliates into this process; creating a synergistic transnational focus on poverty reduction.

The listed policy options span Oxfam’s full spectrum of programmatic activities; while being wholly contained within the organization’s central mission, to avoid mission drift. The various, and often competing self-interests of our partners in this initiative will require ongoing attention. Currently, however, we are capable of riding the wave of success, with the World Bank and IMF reforms, Congressional approval of the Enhanced HIPC Initiative, and public attention for the issue. Capitalizing upon these resources will enable Oxfam America to work in partnership with our allies to achieve the goal of shifting the focus of development finance to include poverty reduction as its central aim.

V. Recommendation and Implementation (see appendix 2)

Oxfam’s debt relief campaign has shown that Oxfam’s advocacy and policy work has a strong potential to advance its mission to reduce global poverty. Advocacy proved to be a viable tool in fostering coordination between the various stakeholders such as the international financial institutions, individual country donors, HIPCs, and other NGOs. Aligning Oxfam’s efforts with those of other NGOs will also prove to be an effective way of increasing awareness of global poverty and debt relief among the general public and affected stakeholders. At the same time, Oxfam was challenged by the difficulty of coordinating with diverse group of partners who were not willing to compromise and find politically feasible solutions. While advocacy proves to be a viable tool for advancing Oxfam’s mission, direct grant-making and public awareness building will continue to play a crucial role in delivering our agenda of immediate impact to local communities around the world.

Based on the experience from our debt relief campaign and the analysis of the strategic options available to Oxfam, we propose that Oxfam delivers on its mission via its three core programmatic areas while instituting reforms in each one of them to ensure greater efficiency. Grant-making, advocacy, and public awareness provide Oxfam with an effective combination of short term, localized tools and long term broad impact solutions to ensure global reduction of poverty and injustice. The recommended reforms for each area are summarized below (See Appendix 1).


Poverty reduction needs to be set as the top priority of the advocacy agenda. While Oxfam has focused predominantly on debt relief advocacy, due to the short term nature of this solution, Oxfam’s advocacy agenda needs to go beyond debt relief and set reduction of poverty as its overarching goal. Due to the importance of the U.S. government, which holds de facto veto powers on the boards of the IMF and WB, U.S. Congress and the Treasury must be the key targets of Oxfam America’s advocacy. Oxfam America’s advocacy efforts should not be limited to just the U.S. government and should also include civil society. Our own experience with Jubilee 2000 illustrated the important role played by civil society organizations in maintaining momentum for poverty reduction and debt relief and challenging the status quo of international actors such as the IFIs and also national governments. In order to secure internal support of major IFI’s, Oxfam will conduct a careful analysis on key individuals to target at these institutions. Such analysis will ensure efficient use of resources.

Given the proven importance of advocacy, we recommend that this area be allocated additional funding in order to achieve greater reach and effectiveness. Oxfam America should develop a new direct fundraising line from where funds will be directly transferred to the advocacy of programmatic area. These additional fundraising resources can be secured through intensifying media campaign and coordinating closely with fundraising efforts of other Oxfam affiliates. Furthermore, advocacy costs will be reduced by greater coordination with other Oxfam affiliates on advocacy campaigns.

As a moderate organization, Oxfam needs to limit the gridlock experienced during the debt relief campaigns by leveraging Oxfam's more progressive partners. A careful analysis of all potential partners should be conducted prior to engagement in any joint campaign. While such analysis should be conducted by the team working on a given campaign, Oxfam America needs to establish an advocacy executive board that will evaluate the analysis and make a decision whether or not to partner with the actor under consideration. I recognize that partnering with progressive organizations puts Oxfam's image at risk, however I believe that proper planning and clear memorandum of understanding can mitigate any risk. The new division should contain executive board of three to five members. While the majority of the members should come from the advocacy and programmatic area, the board also needs to include a member from at least one other programmatic area to broaden the scope of perspective.


Grantmaking will continue to be the core of Oxfam activities. To ensure alignment around the overarching goal of poverty reduction, all grants, outside of immediate crisis relief funds, will be approved only once the recipients clearly demonstrate that funding is directed towards poverty reduction. To facilitate this grant making process, Oxfam will create an internal results based evaluation method to assess the effectiveness and viability of the grant recipients’ proposals. In order to prevent duplication of efforts Oxfam grants within HIPC should be targeted towards development issues that are not specifically targeted by the World Bank and IMF. Such an approach will not only ensure greater effectiveness in development efforts, but also increase our bargaining tool with the IMF and WB. The focus of the grants should be placed on education, labor market training, and environmental protection.

During our negotiations with the World Bank and IMF we argued for a greater participatory role of the loan recipients in the design of the loan conditions. To achieve such empowerment of the HIPCs, Oxfam should allocate a percentage of its grant funding to the promotion of participatory process between the HIPC and the IFIs. This funding will be granted to an HIPC that is negotiating its loan conditions with one of the IFIs and is able to present a specific plan for the terms of the loan that it wants to secure with the IFI.

Public Awareness Building

To complement its approach Oxfam should partner with appropriate NGOs for coordination on public education and advocacy campaigns. Public awareness plays a key role to promote the mission of Oxfam and complement its other activities such as advocacy, fund development, and volunteering. As with advocacy partnering, a careful evaluation of the potential partners must be conducted by the team assigned to the given public awareness project. Building off existing relationships with media and journalists, the new public awareness campaign will focus on reforming international organizations and changing the macro level perspectives of people everywhere. In order to change the practices of international organizations we must first bring public attention to the issues, then member state constituents will also call for reform.

Oxfam America needs to establish an executive board for the public awareness area that will evaluate the feasibility of potential media and also civil society partners in order to make informed decisions whether or not to engage in cooperation with a given actor under consideration.

Additional Fund Development/Rebranding

The structural reformulation and subsequent new advocacy and public awareness divisions will provide Oxfam America with an excellent opportunity to capture funding from individuals and groups that had previously evaded our organization. Previously Oxfam America had been reserved to raising money for direct program implementation such as disaster relief and food assistance. By creating a new advocacy brand we will be able to approach individuals and organizations interested in policy and macro level reforms in addition to our ongoing programmatic areas. This new line of business will allow us to rebrand and compete with other advocacy organizations and ultimately expand our budget and the scope of impact on poverty reduction.


In the short run, Oxfam should focus on intensifying its debt relief advocacy to secure the approval of the congressional bill and improve the terms of the Enhanced HIPC initiative. This will be done by reaching out to insiders beyond the current allies that Oxfam has at the World Bank and the US Congress. It is also recommended that Oxfam immediately begin to draft criteria and evaluations forms for both – the evaluations of potential allies and the evaluation of the poverty focus of projects that seek Oxfam’s grants.

In the long term, Oxfam should begin the process of rebranding its advocacy campaign from debt relief to poverty reduction and social justice. It is crucial that transparency, human rights and measures to reduce corruption in the HIPC become elements of our advocacy activities. We are a result-driven organization and are hence aware that foreign aid and grants to corrupt governments is just pouring water on sand as resources are likely to be misused. Debt re-accumulation after debt relief or foreign aid would greatly undermine the efficiency of our advocacy activities and bargaining power with the IFIs. Once greater amount of resources is allocated to advocacy, Oxfam should expand its advocacy campaigns in terms of the media coverage it secures and as well direct lobbying contacts with members of the Congress and IFIs. In the long run, Oxfam will begin to apply its evaluations procedures to all grants and partnerships.

Appendix 1

OA’s revised organizational map

Appendix 2

Summary of Proposed Strategic Reforms for Oxfam America

Monday, February 22, 2010

Man-made Disaster- Non Immunization of Kids

Background: The most cost effective public health intervention is to deliver safe vaccines thorough an efficient delivery system. The main objective of the immunization program is to reduce the mortality and morbidity by vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). In 1975, the smallpox was successfully eradicated globally by an efficient and effective vaccination program with an effective surveillance. As a result, an expanded immunization program was launched in India in 1978 to control other VPDs. At the very outset 6 deadly diseases were selected: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, and typhoid and childhood tuberculosis. To begin with, the aim was kept to cover 80% of all infants. Latter on, to universalize the program, it is named in 1985 as Universal Immunization Program (UIP) and measles vaccine replaced the typhoid. The UIP was introduced in phases from 1985 to cover all districts by 1990, targeting all infants with the primary immunization schedule and all pregnant women with Tetanus Toxoid immunization. To make India polio free the National Polio Surveillance Project was started in 1995-96 under the Polio Eradication program

Why act of non immunization is a manmade disaster: A Man-made disasters is a threat having an element of human intent, negligence, or error, or involving a failure of a man-made system. India has made tremendous improvements in health sector in the last thirty years; still lives are lost due to early childhood diseases because of man-made system failure. There are multiple reasons for this but the major factor and the most prominent one is non immunized children against six deadly diseases as per the program. Therefore, more than two millions children die annually as they don’t get vaccinated to develop immunity to fight against these diseases. This is due to bad governance and mismanagement of the health departments. On one hand Health workers are negligent, erroneous and careless towards their duty to vaccinate the children as per the medical norm and on the other hand illiterate and careless parents/guardians are not aware of the dire consequences of non vaccination of their children. These two manmade factors together are taking lives of the kids in spite of availability all required resources. We can prevent these manmade deaths if both medicals workers and parents become aware, alert and dutiful on this issue. If we can eradicate small pox globally, it is almost established and sure that we can save the lives of nearly two million kids by removing and preventing the manmade factors and causes which is costing very heavily in the form of children death.

Outcomes: The infant mortality in India is as high as 58 deaths per 1,000 live births. While the infant mortality rate showed a rapid decline during the 1980s, the decrease has slowed during the past decade. Children in India continue to lose their lives to vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, which remains the biggest killer. Tetanus in newborns remains a problem in at least five states: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal, and Assam. The number of polio cases in India declined from 1,934 in 1998 to 268 in 2001. There was a setback in 2002 as 1,600 cases were confirmed at the end of the year. But with only 568 cases of polio reported in 2009, however, the proportion of children who receive vaccination against measles has dropped considerably, from 72% in 1995 to a low of 50% in 1999. It now stands at 61%.

Immunization: A large proportion of vulnerable infants and children in India are not receiving this simple intervention. Across India in 2006-07, only 62% of children 12-23 months had received all six of their primary vaccines, with a wide variation across the states. The States with poorer immunization rates are generally the same states with higher infant mortality. India also has the largest number of infants who celebrates their first birthday not fully immunized. Improving routine immunization rates and immunization of incoming newborns will continue to be a decisive element of the overall strategy.

UNICEF ACTIONS: UNICEF provides support for national and state level policy and planning. In addition, UNICEF supports in vaccine and cold chain management, procurement, supplies and capacity building of health workers, cold chain handlers and program managers. The specific activities of the UNICEF team which includes playing a catalytic role, facilitation and assistance to: 1) The State level review and planning meeting on routine immunization. 2) To provide directions from the state level to the districts. 3) Review of vaccine, AD syringes and cold chain logistics and requesting from GoI. 4) Advocacy with the Chief Secretary / Principal Secretary (Health) /Director General (Health)/ Divisional Commissioner / District Collectors / Health Minister / Chief Minister for bringing routine immunization on top of the agenda amongst various health programs. 5) Managing Information Education and communication(IEC)activities. 6) Monitoring Immunization Week (IW) activities and its feedback to enable corrective action.

New UNICEF action: Proposal for Strengthening Routine Immunization in Uttar Pradesh. Immunization Program of Uttar Pradesh is one of the largest in the country in terms of quantities of vaccine used, number of beneficiaries, number of immunization sessions organized and the geographical spread and diversity of areas covered. The success of the immunization program is crucial for the expansion of other public health interventions too. Both UIP and National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) targets to provide equitable, efficient and safe immunization services to all infants and pregnant female. NRHM , 2005-12, seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country with special focus on 18 states, which have weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure. In this also on the top is the state of Uttar Pradesh.

The primary objective of the immunization program in the state of Uttar Pradesh is to:

Opportunities in UP: The opportunities that are available in the present context of UP are:1)The District Level Household and facility Survey (DLHS-3) data provides a base that if the children reached with BCG vaccine are being tracked subsequently in RI sessions in a systematized way then we can reduce the drop-out rate significantly and thereby having more Fully Immunized children with attainment of Million Development Goals-4. 2) Use of Newborn Tracking Booklet (NBTB) used in every supplementary immunization activities (SIA) round provides a base for updating the mother child and health (MCH) register with beneficiaries for subsequent tracking for RI doses. 3) Funding available through NRHM addresses the issue of operational and administrative support towards financial and human resource investments.

Problem Statement: The program constraints in UP is multi-pronged. They can be enumerated as: 1) Low demand for immunization services. Lack of public knowledge is a key barrier to immunization i.e. unaware, careless, and, illiterate parents and guardians. 2) Monitoring and weak supervisory and erroneous practices remain problematic i.e. mismanagement and bad governance and failure of a man-made system. 4) Insincerity, carelessness and lack of up-to-date knowledge of health workers.

Strategies: The strategies that have planned towards RI vision for the state and detailed in NRHM yearly project implementation plan (PIP) document are: 1) to reach the underserved or hard to reach populations. 2) to reduce drop-outs and missed opportunities, fixed-day fixed site, integration with private sector. 3)To increase the demand for services of those who have historically participated in routine immunization, but whose interest might be decreasing due to insufficient institutional support for RI: 1)Print media and other mass media systems are effective strategies for raising awareness and influencing behavior. Inter-personal communication (IPC) with families and communities is also critical in bringing about the desired change in attitude and behavior of service users. 2) IPC through ANMs(Auxiliary nurse midwife), AWWs(Agan Wari Workers), local mobilizes and influential persons; IEC material for providers as well as clients.

Innovations done in the State: Many innovations have been done in the state of UP to deduce and establish systems to address the existing problems in Routine Immunization and work in the line of proposed strategies in the state. The two relevant are: 1) the Quality Micro planning has been done in the State with support from UNICEF, WHO/NPSP and CARE in all the 71 Districts of the state using Polio SIA micro plan as base. 2) the “Tracking Every Newborn (TEN)” Initiative was initiated by WHO/NPSP in eight blocks of RI Supported eight NPSP district for tracking every newborn through computerized name based database. This initiative utilizes the newborn data generated through polio SIA as well as other sources to have a comprehensive list.

Proposal: Keeping in view the above problem statement and innovations taken up in the state by Government of UP and Partners, it is proposed that a system of tracking of children in the State needs to be adopted:1)Survey for the eligible beneficiaries in the area will be conducted by ASHA with support of AWW utilizing the ANM of that particular sub centre. The data generated in the filed will be entered in Block Level Computers to generate the soft copies of the beneficiaries. 2) For scaling up the benefits of TEN initiatives, software may be developed with support from NIC which captures the benefits of both the innovations. Technical aspect of the software for its correctness may be requested from WHO/NPSP. 3) The filled-in session tally sheet when entered into the software for vaccination status of the beneficiaries will generate the monthly report for the block which will be transmitted to the District for preparing the monthly report for the district. 4) A monitoring system will have to be inbuilt using the Block Medical Officers and District Medical Officer supervision and monitoring, so that the system can be sustained. 5) Meeting with Directorate Program Officers will be done prior to implementation of the project and Quarterly review of progress made by the districts will be review during the District Immunization Officers RI Review Meeting in the State. UNICEF country office is working closely with ministry of health and family welfare of GoI and state governments, UN system organizations, local and international NGOs to reduce to effect of this manmade disaster on war footing. Now, our focus is the most difficult state UP to make it 100 % immunized to bring the kids to almost nil. After assessing field feasibility in the first year, we well implement across the country from the next year.

For implementing above described proposed system of tracking of children, we need huge money. For this, we are making effort at our level best to have the donations, but it seems difficult as mostly donor has already helped generously in the polio eradication program. Our efforts with governments and partners are continuing to save the lives of dying children by improving the immunization status i.e. by minimizing the manmade factors which are contributing to and resulting in no immunization of the children.

An Innovative approach to improve The Good Governance in India By focusing young Indian Leaders

The fate of India’ economic development is basically in the hands of two wings: elected leaders and permanent bureaucracy. They are two sides of a coin one is making policy and the other is implementing it. This is a very broad picture of a complex situation. One without other is incomplete and insignificant. Judiciary plays a key role of monitoring and sometimes providing suggestive directions to legislature and bureaucracy.

India is regarded world wide as an emerging strong country along with China. There is a reason for this. Indian economy was opened up in 1991 when our Dr Manmohan Singh was finance minister. Fortunately after that even with change of power in Delhi there were no drastic changes in economic liberalization policy. This implies a consensus on this across political parties. When Dr. Singh became prime minister pushed the country forward with greater speed on the path of economic development. Being an well renowned economist, he had clarity about the path of development the country has to take. To ensure success he took in his team Mr. Montek Singh Ahluwalia, another renowned economist. Together they have proved to the world India’s emergence as an economically strong nation. This is the result of foresight ness and better management of the development of the country. He is not a politician but a professional turn politician. What he proved to the world is amazing. India is now moving on the road of fast economic growth to reach the destination of a developed country. Now big challenge is how to increase the momentum. Above that challenge is how to sustain it is a question that is to be deliberated on.

Before 1991, India lived in a cocoon with out any outside competition. But now the situation is just opposite. National boundaries are melting; right to information has made everyone more accountable and has brought a big constituency in cautious mode; internet has made paperless offices and unlimited access to the world of knowledge. Currently we are in a situation where no country can progress in isolation. Interconnectivity has become the norm of life. To face the new set of situations and challenges India has to mold itself accordingly to keep and enhance the current pace of economic growth. To achieve this, we have to reorient two main and basic wing of the country that plays the vital role in shaping the fate of the nation. These together are so might that they can change anything even the country at least for time being.

Permanent bureaucracy gets opportunities time to time to learn tactics, techniques and acquire knowledge on how to face new challenges from the highly competitive environment which are from inside as well outside the country and how to succeed. Training required to handle different situations are given at different levels of the service span. Though, in my opinion, they are not adequate but still such a system is in place. These opportunities provide chances to the bureaucracy to imbibe the best practices of public policy and public administration which are prevailing and are in practice worldwide and are delivering results. This helps them to reorient to meet new demands from their changed role from administrator to manager. Their exposure-inside and outside the country by means of training and different such activities - make them understand the actual reality of our backwardness in different fields in world economic and development race. These realizations compel them to act to remain competitive and provide energy and support to reorient them to face the emerging challenges. There in need to make it more comprehensive but satisfaction can be derived to a certain extent from the fact that something is better than nothing.

This is the story of one side of the coin.

But what about the other side of the coin, are there any systems in place to equip and prepare our politicians to reorient themselves to face new challenges faced by them by different factors like bureaucracy? As I see, there is no such system. Can we win the battle of developed country without such a system? A natural answer will be no and it is the truth. Now politics is leaving its old and traditional style and is adopting and using new methods e.g. use of SMS, Internet, websites, new printing mediums etc in order not to lag behind in the new competitive environment. As we are aware, the use of internet is penetrating every aspect of life including politics. President Obama’s election is a good example and the best lesson to learn for the political parties all over the world. He did a new successful experiment and it is an example to others in this field to emulate.

In my opinion, blaming our politicians- as we usually do- for bad governance, slow economic growth, high unemployment, non development of infrastructure, high corruption level, poverty, lack of basic amenities etc. without offering them any opportunity of learning and reorienting is a great injustice to them. To prove my point, I would give the example of our Prime Minister Dr Singh and his trusted lieutenant Mr Ahluwalia . They had the opportunity to upgrade their skills through relevant educations, international exposure and this is proved in their performance. There is no serious thinking under consideration to provide political leaders managerial inputs to tackle the challenges of a new seamless world. The required exposure, a few have that are their personal and family’s efforts. There is no system in place to improve the political managerial (How to run the government and party efficiently to make the country number one in the world) quality of future architects of our nation. Almost all national and regional registered parties (registered with Election Commission of India) make an all out effort to win elections to various tiers of our governance structure. But nothing is done after they are elected to enhance their capability to perform and manage better. Winning election is only the trailer of the picture. It means our picture is not going to a success, a hit. To make it a hit picture, we have to think and start something new and innovative. To equip our leaders to face new challenges and to have better coordination with bureaucracy and public and other stakeholders they need exposure of the best practices of the world in the field of party, public and economic management. To achieve this, I am suggesting a new and innovative program for the politicians of my country. Since, it is new and innovative a reputed international organization has to take the lead. I would suggest that UNDP India own this responsibility. There are great possibilities that after some time of the initiative it may be made an integral part of the activities of the political parties. A rule can be framed on this latter on. Initially to set this agenda in motion we have to take the pain.

A brief outline of my new and innovative idea which is in my thought process is as under:

It is basically capacity development approach in a new field in a systematic way.

Program: Preparing young and future Indian leaders for the 21st century’s challenges through building their capacity by providing them opportunity to learn the best national and international practices about party, economic and public management.

Partners: UNDP, Government of India(GoI), Election Commission of India(ECI), Institutions active in this filed, NGO working for good governance, all national and regional parties registered with ECI and national and international donor agencies.

Duration of training: Two months, one month in India and one month outside the country

(Foreign training)

Subject of training: (Changeable) Very broadly it can be divided into two categories:

Making ready for party and election management (When on holding any mandated authority)

  1. How to manage political parties efficiently. What are and were the best practices and examples is this regards e.g use of internet by Mr. Obama. Lectures of past and present heads of nations and successful political performers in the field of politics and its management should be an integral part of the program.
  2. How to manage elections. How coordinate with election process and associated officials. How to prevent entry and remove bad practices form the election and election. E.g. how to check malpractices in the election, how to enhance poll percentage, how to act to help in electoral rolls preparation, how to reduce election expenditure, how to prevent entry of bad characters in politics and how to promote good persons to join the etc. In this are best national and transnational best practices should be part of the program.
  3. How to serve and meet the expectations of the general public and voters with limited time and resources. How to use new invented technological tools to be more successful.
  4. Who are and were 20 best leaders in the world at each level of management. Their study will sharpen the acumen and the best practice of one will be the tool for others.

Making ready for the role of Government actors (MP, MLA, Minister, Mayer,--- Village head man)

1. The main focus in the role is how to make a balance among government, public, bureaucracy, party etc. It is a multidimensional task and really challenging.

2. Policy formulation, reform and its efficient and successful implementation. How to make and implement pubic policy (demand driven policy and supply driven policy): theory and practices with case studies.

3. Which are the 20 best economically performing countries in the world. Why they are performing well? What are main factors of their performance? Which leader did what, how and why and when (time of policy implementation and reform plays a major role)? It will be better if leaders’ interactive sessions are organized to make the program more effective useful and fruitful.

4. Who are and were 20 best leaders in the world who perform superb at each level of government in government official capacity. Their study will sharpen the acumen and the best practice of one will be the rule for others without experimentation.

Participants: To begin with, young leaders up to the age of 45 years should be get the chance to learn. It can be later extended to include older leaders. Every national and regional party has youth wings. In each training batch parties will nominate their young leaders up to the age of 45 years. The number will be fixed according to resources and strength of the batch with national party’s nomination more than regional one in each batch.

Financing: Whole expense on each participant can be shared: contribution by the parties (5% - token amount to make them serious towards the program and awareness generation), contribution of central government (30%) and state governments (15%) and 50% donations from donors and NGOs in the leadership of UNDP.

Key actor, Co coordinator, owner of the program: The election commission of India as all registered political parties is its clients.

Implementation strategy: There are institute doing research and imparting training in good governance. With the collaboration we can get tailor the program according to our need.

Additional benefit:

  1. It is a form of the best effective political reform.
  2. If such systemization is practiced in politics in a professional manner it will attract the educated youth to join politics which is not he trend now.
  3. It may change the trend in reverse direction. Then choosing politics would be by design and not by default. As a result the problem of criminalization of politics will be addressed to some extent.
  4. It may prove a boon to Indian politics as it aims at professionalizing the political management. It will reduce the economic wastes of money during the elections and in other activities.
  5. It will bring good competitions among the politicians which may lead to over all enhancement of efficiency.
  6. It will reduce the usual friction and conflict used to develop between political actors and bureaucracy.
  7. It will be a model and can be implemented in other countries with similar situations.
  8. It will be increasing the constituency of UNDP and enhancing the number of its supporters.